A problem occurred while trying to use your mailbox

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This error is known by Microsoft and described on this article.

Other tip that may work is to
 
1. Login to server ad administrator
2. Open ‘Active Directory Users’ snap-in.
2) Go to View < enable the ‘Advanced Features’.
3) Go to requested user properties < open ‘security’ tab.
4) navigate to ‘Advanced’.
5) click the ‘Inherit from parent’ to apply all permissions from parent.
6) click apply < OK.